Neurons are organized into anatomical and functional groups called “circuits”. The activity of these circuits is traditionally monitored using conventional electrophysiological techniques. But some cells, such as the submandibular ganglia, are difficult to impale for intracellular recordings. Instead, viral vectors can be used to deliver fluorescent calcium sensors for detecting activity in a living animal. Calcium Imaging of Neuronal Circuits In Vivo Using a Circuit-Tracing Pseudorabies Virus, from Lynn Enquist and colleagues at Princeton University, provides detailed instructions for the use of the pseudorabies virus (PRV) as a vector for imaging connectivity and activity of neuronal circuits. PRV has a broad host range but does not infect higher-order primates, and it travels along chains of synaptically connected neurons. The PRV strain used in this procedure encodes G-CaMP2, a sensitive fluorescent calcium sensor protein. Available in the April issue of Cold Spring Harbor Protocols, the method allows for reliable detection of endogenous circuit activity at single-cell resolution. As one of April’s featured articles, it is freely available to subscribers and nonsubscribers alike.